Coal-reliant Poland’s e-car push clouded by EU emissions row


WARSAW/PRAGUE (Information) – Poland is betting on electrical batteries to turbocharge its financial system, however its dependency on coal might problem its technique because the EU seeks to champion European producers that promote clear vitality.

Buses pictured on the meeting line on the Solaris Bus & Coach plant in Bolechowo close to Poznan, Poland October four, 2019. Information/Alan Charlish

Japanese Europe’s largest financial system is already a middle for auto components makers reminiscent of Michelin, Valeo and Denso. As carmakers shift to electrical autos, spurred by efforts to fight local weather change, Warsaw is relying on lithium battery manufacturing to carve out a distinct segment within the auto trade’s ‘inexperienced vitality’ technology manufacturing.

Within the first quarter of 2019, Poland was the EU’s largest exporter of lithium ion batteries – with gross sales of 361 million euros ($400 million) – after luring Asian battery makers led by South Korea’s LG Chem.

LG Chem’s plant close to town of Wroclaw, which opened final yr, is Europe’s largest electrical automobile battery manufacturing unit and is now present process a four.four billion zloty ($1.1 billion) enlargement.

Polish financial institution Pekao estimates the auto trade final yr contributed 145 billion zlotys ($38 billion) to Poland’s $542 billion financial system, which is ready to develop by greater than four% this yr.

However the nation’s twin dependence on Asian buyers and coal vitality poses dangers longer-term because it collides with the European Fee’s ambitions to develop home-grown battery makers to tackle at the moment dominant Asian rivals.

“To forestall a technological dependence on our rivals … Europe has to maneuver quick within the international race,” the European Fee, which launched the European Battery Alliance in 2017 to deliver gamers collectively and construct a battery trade, says in a report on its technique.

Europe’s battery market could possibly be value 250 billion euros by 2025, the report says, and the Fee’s aims embody supporting “the sustainability of an EU battery cell manufacturing trade with the bottom environmental footprint doable.”

Poland generates 80% of its energy from closely polluting coal. Whereas the ruling nationalist Regulation and Justice celebration (PiS) has pledged funding in photovoltaic, offshore wind and nuclear energy to chop emissions, it nonetheless expects half of the nation’s electrical energy to be generated from coal by 2050.

Poland led jap EU states in blocking an EU transfer to commit the bloc to internet zero emissions by 2050, arguing that post-communist states want extra time to make the transition.

“Poland wants to resolve this concern as a result of electrical battery manufacturing ought to be roughly carbon impartial in the long run,” stated Stefan Bratzel of the Middle of Automotive Administration in Germany.

“It is mindless to provide the battery cell with a rucksack of coal.”


For now, Poland’s low value manufacturing base is an even bigger issue than its use of fossil fuels within the eyes of many international buyers, though it faces competitors.

China’s Modern Amperex Know-how Ltd (CATL) selected Germany for its first European battery manufacturing website, whereas South Korea’s Samsung SDI, Inzi Controls and SK Innovation all plan battery crops in Hungary.

Warsaw’s aggressive push provides it an edge over its neighbors although, analysts say, with company tax breaks of as much as 70% and money grants on provide.

“Europe can have a robust sector right here and naturally Poland ought to be one of many nations the place it’s stronger,” Javier Calleja, chief govt of Poznan-based electrical bus maker Solaris Bus & Coach, which was acquired by Spain’s CAF Group final yr. It plans to develop manufacturing to over 500 electrical buses in 2020, from round 300 this yr.

Subsequent yr, China’s Zhangijiagan Guotai-Hurang New Chemical Supplies and German automobile big Mercedes plan to open battery crops in Poland, whereas European battery materials makers Umicore and Johnson Matthey have additionally introduced plans to arrange there.

However the nation’s lead in battery manufacturing can be examined as European carmakers enter the sector.

Europe’s largest carmaker Volkswagen (VOWG_p.DE) plans to open a battery plant in a three way partnership with Sweden’s Northvolt AB in Salzgitter, Germany subsequent yr, whereas France and Germany have sought EU Fee approval for a battery cell consortium together with carmaker PSA, its German subsidiary Opel and French battery maker Saft.

Jobs created by the battery sector have helped push Poland’s unemployment price right down to a file low of 5.1%.

LG Chem’s Wroclaw plant will make use of 6,000 individuals by 2021, in keeping with the Polish Funding and Commerce Company, and can produce greater than half of the South Korean firm’s international battery output by the tip of this yr.

However for Poland to keep up its aggressive edge within the sector and the financial advantages that include it, the nation must adapt as Europe’s automobile trade transforms.

Buses pictured on the meeting line on the Solaris Bus & Coach plant in Bolechowo close to Poznan, Poland October four, 2019. Information/Alan Charlish

“I don’t really feel it’s either-or,” Poland’s minister for entrepreneurship and know-how, Jadwiga Emilewicz, instructed Information when requested if Poland was too depending on Asian battery makers.

Previously few years the nation has seen a handful of area of interest home firms emerge within the sector, together with Recupyl Polska, which recycles Li-ion batteries and makes use of know-how of France’s Recupyl, a pioneer in recycling batteries for electrical autos.

“We’ve acquired some benefits in know-how particularly relating to recycling,” Emilewicz stated. “The query is whether or not we’re capable of create some type of Polish worth within the worth chain.”

Reporting by Alan Charlish and Michael Kahn; Enhancing by Susan Fenton